Blog

NEMATODES ON PECANS:

Substantial dieback of branches in the upper canopy. Examination revealed the presence of many small galls and egg masses on feeder roots-with female nematodes often protruding from root tissue. The worms were identified as root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne partityla. Host range tests conducted in Texas, revealed that it prefers to feed on hickory, pecan, and walnut trees. Although M. partityla is not likely to kill the pecan trees, it will debilitate them and lower their productivity to a point where the orchard may no longer be profitable.

When to prune your tree

It seems that there is a mis-conception that pecan trees should be pruned in the dead middle of winter. I personally think this is one of the biggest mistakes you could make. Pruning during the cold winter months leaves a wound that is exposed to the harsh winter elements. Those who practice this method say there is less chance for insect damage, however, that gaping wound you inflicted on your tree is still present when the bugs do come out in early spring. I recommend you do not prune until early spring, prior to bud break. We actually plan our pruning for late April, after the leaves have sprouted. This enables the tree to immediately begin it’s healing process. Pecan trees can be pruned at any time without major setbacks. I discourage summer pruning unless it consists only of small branch removal. We try to coincide our prunings with the expected crop-set. Pecan trees tend to produce heavily every other year, followed by an ‘off year.’ We will do our heaviest pruning on our ‘on ‘ years, and prune lightly on our ‘off’ years. This aids in balancing out our crops and to an extent, prevents the tree from stressing from a heavy crop, which would 

Pruning, trimming, and training pecan trees

runing your pecan tree(s) is a necessary and on-going chore that begins with the initial planting of your tree. Pecan trees are ‘lazy’ trees and will grow into gigantic ‘pecan bushes’ if annual pruning is not performed. The goals you seek to achieve in pruning are to encourage upward growth, lateral growth that will allow your tree full advantage to sunlight, and improved tree management. You also want your trees to well…look nice?

Suckers (small branches) growing along the trunk) will rapidly grow into unmanageable limbs, while growth in the upper areas of the tree will stall. It take less energy, water, and nutrients to promote growth lower on the trunk, thus if lower branches are allowed to remain, the pecan tree will be content just being an unsightly and unmanageable ‘bush.’ You can’t hardly ‘mess up’ when it comes to pecan tree pruning, unless you (a) don’t prune at all, or (b) you prune too heavily. Since you are reading this page, I assume you intend to prune so we’ll move on to (b) pruning too heavily. Unless your tree has reached near death and severe pruning is your only hope to revive it, you should never remove more than one third of its branches in a season. If you follow a yearly pruning schedule, you should never have to prune even that severely.

We bought our pecan orchard when the trees were five to six feet tall. They had been neglected for several years and had branches growing on the lower trunk. With the hope (and the notion that those lower branches produced pecans, too) that we could turn a profit from our pecan crop, or at least break even, we were cautious with our pruning for the first several years. We ‘worked our way up’ the tree for the first three years, removing the branches from the ground to a height of three feet the first year and removing another two feet of growth each of the following two years. This prevented throwing the trees into shock and allowed top growth to offset the lower branch removal. We were successful in producing a crop each year by following this method.

Pruning is in fact training your tree to grow the way you want it to grow. Pecan trees must have ample sunlight to produce a crop. With this in mind, you should prune to allow the upper branches to spread and to take in as much sunlight as possible. Many pecan experts say a single vertical trunk is essential. We pruned our trees to achieve this for the most part. We pruned one tree close to our house into a ‘vase’ shape because we designated it the ‘climbing tree.’ Approximately two feet from the ground, it splits into three ‘trunks’ forming the vase shape. It is a beautiful and well proportioned tree, and our kids have always claimed it as their tree. So, when it comes to training a young tree, you can decide whether to prune to make it become ‘just a tree’ or make it an eye catching part of your landscape. Just be sure you start out with a plan and carry it out throughout the years.

While mature trees will require annual pruning to an extent, your major pruning comes during the first ten to fifteen years of the pecan trees life. Keep in mind during those years that you need access to the orchard floor beneath your tree. You will spend considerable time underneath your tree, watering, fertilizing, controlling weed growth, and oh yeah…picking up pecans. When you are able to prune your tree’s lowest limbs to a height just above your head, your major pruning chores are almost finished. There should be no need to prune the lower branches any higher than your head. You might keep in mind that someday you may be bringing in the heavy equipment (harvesting equipment) and be sure the shape of your trees will accommodate these machines. Other than that, your biggest pruning chores are complete.

Mature pecan trees will inevitably require annual attention. Small branches will grow downward in search of sunlight, and limbs bearing a heavy pecan crop will droop and continue a downward growth. The removal of these branches should be the only pruning you will need to perform on mature trees. Again, your goal is to be able to walk beneath your tree without a branch scraping your face!

Occasionally an upper branch will die and need to be removed. I suggest you purchase a telescoping tree saw/lopper to handle these problems. The cause of these higher branches dying range from high wind damage, freeze damage, disease, and improper care of your tree. I highly suggest you remove any dead limbs from your pecan tree as soon as possible to avoid the possibility of disease spreading throughout your tree.

“KISS” (KEEP IT SIMPLE AND STRAITFORWARD) SINK SPUIT-PROGRAM

PRODUK: Sink Nitraat Zn(NO3)2
KONSENTRASIE: 80-100 mg per liter

BELANGRIKE PUNTE OM TE ONTHOU TYDENS SINK-SPUIT TOEDIENINGS:

  • Die pH van die Spuit mengsel moet nie hoër as 6.5 wees nie.
  • Gebruik ‘n goeie benatter.
  • Moet nooit tydens die hitte van die dag spuit nie.
  • Lugvog moet bo 50% wees vir optimale opname. In die warm, droë streke van ons land is die lugvog gewoonlik eers laat in die aande reg.



METODE:

  • Terwyl die spuit tenk gevul word voeg die buffer by die water wanneer die tenk amper vol is. Gooi dan die Sink by en skakel die roer aksie aan. Voeg laastens die benatter by en laat goed roer.
  • Wanneer Sink Nitraat gebruik word is dit nie nodig om ekstra stikstof as draer by te voeg nie. Die Nitraat verrig daardie funksie. Met ander Sink bronne is dit wel nodig om ‘n draer by die spuit mengsel te voeg en kan Lae Buret Ureum, of ‘n vloeibare Ammoniumsulfaat gebruik word.
  • Groot druppels (groter as 500 mikron ) moet toegedien word om goeie benatting te verseker. Gebruik die regte warrelplaatjie en gaatjie grootte en spuit teen druk laer as 800 kPa. Dit behoort jou in die omgewing van ‘n duisend liter water per hektaar te gee.
  • Tradisioneel vind die eerste bespuiting met bot plaas, maar die effektiwiteit daarvan word bevraagteken. Ons vind dat goeie Sink bemesting (Sink Chelaat / Sink Sulfaat) saam met jou lente bemesting goeie resultate lewer.
  • Begin bespuitings vroeg in die nuwe groei-seisoen en herhaal dan elke veertien tot 21 dae tot en met einde Maart. Dit sal verseker dat die boom optimaal groei en produseer.
  • Saam met elke tweede bespuiting kan ander mikro elemente by gevoeg word om die balans in die plant optimaal te hou.



Vir enige verdere navrae kontak ons gerus

Vriendelike Groete:

 

Sink (Zn) in Pekanneute

Geagte PMMC-SA vriende:

Neute is geoes en nuwe aanplantings is klaar aangeplant. Miskien sal die goeie opbrengste wat by baie Pekanneut boere gerealliseer het, tesame met die goeie pryse wat hierdie jaar geheers het baie ander boere aanspoor om soos ons uitbreidings in die Suid Afrikaanse Pekanneut bedryf te bevorder.

Hierdie jaar was weereens ‘n bewys van baie goeie geld te maak in die pekanneut bedryf. Let wel (soos genoem in van my vorige artikels) het die internasionale mark standaarde strenger geraak en swak neute sal verseker in die groeiende mark ‘n swak markprys realliseer in die toekoms. Alhoewel baie faktore te doen het met swak kwaliteit neute, is Sink (Zn) sekerlik een van die mees kritiese.

Soos iemand in die Texas Pecan geskryf het die volgende:
“If you do nothing else to care for your pecans trees, water them regularly and apply zinc applications throughout the early growing season. It is my firm belief that there is nothing more important if you are to achieve a successful pecan crop year after year.”
http://www.texaspecantrees.com/pecan_trees_zinc_requirements.html

Wat is die doel van Sink(Zn) in Pekanneute?

  • Zn word gebruik vir koolhidraat produksie in plante.
  • Zn help om die beweging van suikers binne in die plant te reguleer.
  • Zn is krities vir plant groei regulering.
  • Zn tekorte veroorsaak dat die blare (omdat blare dan kleiner is) die krities belangrike prosesse van fotosintese beinvloed.



    Hoe lyk zink tekorte in Pekanneut bome?


Pekanneut bome het ‘n geneigtheid tot Zn tekorte. Kyk vir klein blare met kurwes, blare wat krul, golwende blaarrandte, ‘n ligte geel verkleuring tussen die are van die blare, dooie takke met geen blare nie en ook baie opvallend vanaf ‘n afstand, lang blaar takke met klein blaar klosse aan die punte. ‘n Bewys van Zn tekorte in neute is neute met swak gevulde kern en dowwe neute. Ook opvallend nadat geoes is, is die hoeveelheid skudblare wat aan die bome bly vassit. Hoe meer skudblare aan die bome sit en nie afval nie, hoe groter sal die Zn-tekort in die bome wees.
 
Sink (Zn) toediening:
Daar is gewoonlik twee metodes hoe Zn toegedien word. Die eerste is toediening aan die grond onder die bome, en tweedens deur die blare (gewoonlik met ‘n mis spuit) in ‘n vloeistof vorm.

Zn toedieninig deur die grond kan op verskeie maniere toegedien word. Deur die besproeingstelsel (mikro of drup), of om die boom voordat water toegedien word (mikro of vloed).

Hoë druk misspreiers is baie duursaam en dit moet sterk genoeg druk lewer om die vloeistof tot by die boonste takke (soms tot 12 meter hoog) van die boom te kan kry.

Wanneer om Zn met hoë druk missproeiers deur die blare toe te dien:
Zn toediening deur die blare sal eers vanaf vanaf die lente plaasvind nadat die bome begin bot het.
Dit is krities belangrik om die eerste Sink toediening in hierdie stadium te begin gee. 
Sagte ogies en nuwe groeiende lote is hoogs absorberend (veral vir Zn), tydens hierdie stadium. Blaar ontwikkeling en loot verlenging neem vinnig toe nadat Zn opgeneem is.

Moet nooit Zn gedurende die hitte van die dag spuit nie want dit kan jou blare brand. Huidmondjies op die blare is geneig om ook toe te maak gedurende kwaai hitte en dit sal die opneembaarheid van die Zn verminder. Spuit jou bome ook goed nat. Dit moet lyk of reën-druppels vanaf die blare afloop en om die boom val.

Vanaf bot, elke 3 weke moet Zn gespuit word tot en met einde Maart. Daar is baie verskillende opinies aangaande die feit tot wanneer Zn bespuitings toegedien moet word. Moet nie probeer geld spaar om Zn in Januarie maand op te hou spuit nie. Soos vroeër genoem: “Zn speel ‘n kritiese rol tydens fotosintese vir koolhidraat produksie in die plant en Zn is ook nodig om die beweging van suikers binne in die plant te reguleer. Tydens Februarie en Maart vind neutvulling nog plaas. ‘n Tekort aan water en Zn tydens hierdie twee maande sal sekerlik ‘n invloed hê tot die persentasie dowwe neute wat geoes word.

Tipes Zn: Daar is verskeie tipes Zn om toe te dien op pekanneute. Van die mees gewildste middels om op Pekanneute toe te dien is Sink Sulfaat, Sink Nitraat en Sink Chelaat. Kontak u verskaffers vir aanbeveling en tipes toediening wat by u boerdery praktyk kan inpas.

Onthou dat blaar en grondontledings ten sterkste aanbeveel word om tekorte en toksisiteit uit te wys vir boord spesifieke aanbevelings.